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16th July

1821 * Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian Science movement.

1872 * Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first person to reach the South Pole.

1885 Louis Pasteur treated a 9 year old boy for rabies, the first successful treatment.

1907 * Barbara Stanwyck (Ruby Stevens), US actress and star of Double Indemnity (1944).

1911 * Ginger Rogers (Virginia McMath) who played the lead in many Broadway musicals.

1918 The last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II and his entire family shot dead by the Bolsheviks.

1945: Allied leaders Winston Churchill, Harry S Truman and Josef Stalin gathered at Potsdam to discuss the fate of a defeated Germany.

1945 The first atomic bomb developed by Robert Oppenheimer was detonated in New Mexico.

1969 Apollo II was launched in the US with astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins aboard.

1970 Home Secretary Reginald Maudling declared a state of emergency to deal with Dockers strikes at UK ports.

1979 Saddam Hussein became president of Iraq.

1993 Stella Rimington, 56, became the first Director General of the MI5 to pose openly for cameras at the launch of a brochure outlining the organisation's activities

1999 A light aircraft being piloted by John F. Kennedy Jr vanished over the sea off Martha's vineyard, USA.

2001 The Labour Government was defeated in the House of Commons for the first time since it came to power in 1997.

xxxx * = Date of birth

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