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10th August

1675 King Charles II laid the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

1810 * Count Cavour, Italian statesman and first Prime Minister of a unified Italy.

1846 The Smithsonian Institution was established in Washington, D.C., from funds left by British scientist James Smithson.

1874 * Herbert Hoover, 31st US President.

1889 The screw bottle top was patented by Dan Rylands of Barnsley, Great Britain.

1893 Dr. Rudolf Diesel's prototype 'diesel' engine was tested at Krupps, Germany.

1928 * Eddie Fisher, US crooner and actor who married actress Debbie Reynolds.

1944 US forces seized Guam from Japan.

1959 * Rosanna Arquette, US film actress.

1964 The United Nations brokered another ceasefire in Cyprus, defusing a growing military crisis and heading off the threat of invasion by Turkey.

1966 The first US moon satellite Orbiter 1 was launched.

1977 There was tight security when the Queen visited Northern Ireland for the first time in 11 years as part of her Silver Jubilee tour.

1988 Scientists fear a mysterious disease which had killed more than 6,000 seals in the North Sea and the Baltic has now reached British waters.

1990 The Magellan spacecraft arrived at the planet Venus after an epic 15-month journey from Earth. The craft will spend several years creating a detailed map of the planet.

2001 Former Conservative MP Neil Hamilton and wife Christine strenuously denied allegations by Nadine Milroy-Sloan, 28, that they carried out a serious sexual assault.

2003 Britain recorded its hottest-ever day with temperatures above 100F, jamming roads and packing beaches across the country.

xxxx * = Date of birth

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